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If you don't participate in the game, MT 2K23 is a video game that is an imitation of the NBA. It has a unique culture unique to itself -- including an official NBA 2K League with Magic Gaming recently making their first postseason appearance in this season.For those who are real NBA athletes, the most exciting aspect of the game is players' ratings. There are several players obsessed and arguing against Ronnie 2K (who is not involved in the process of determining the ratings of players) regarding their own ratings.

NBA 2K23 was released on Friday to mark the official turning point towards the 2022-23 season. It's no secret that the Orlando Magic are among the teams at the bottom of the standings again. But there's still plenty to celebrate about.

Fans also take part in the conversation, debating the most important results for the team's standings.

Most players are excited to see how they do on the field. They are aware of the many teams and players that participate. And the fans are excited to see how their preferred players and teams are rated. Many may be satisfied and some may be disappointed, but that's all part to be had in the game.The Orlando Magic are once time likely to finish at the bottom of the table. Paolo Banchero was already announced as the best player in the sport. However, he's still not at the legendary 80-mark, which is usually the mark for superstardom.

Who's willing to debate some NBA 2K ratings?

Every year, when most current version of everybody's favorite basketball game hits the market there are always debates over which players should be graded higher or lower. Now, with the release NBA 2K23. we can finally determine which of the top-rated players are in this year's game.

When NBA 2K22's ratings update ended, James Harden (92 OVR) barely edged out Devin Booker (91 OVR) as the shooting guard with the highest rating in the game. Is Booker's place as the cover star in NBA 2K23 give him a rating boosts to take the top spot among everyone at his position?

Devin Booker has claimed the top spot as the highest-rated shooting guard in 2K. James Harden is on his toes with an overall 89 rating, and Donovan Mitchell, Paul George and Zach LaVine all come in following at and 88 overall.Rising stars Anthony Edwards (86 OVR) and Buy NBA 2K MT Tyrese Haliburton (84 OVR) are two shooting guards who have seen a substantial improvement in their scores heading into the new season.

buryw Dec 3 · Tags: buy mt 2k23, mt 2k23
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In a typical photoconductive antenna-based terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system, the photoconductive sampling method is used to collect terahertz time-domain signals. Photoconductive sampling is a detection technology developed based on the inverse process of photoconductive antenna (PCA) emission mechanism to detect THz pulse signals. To detect the THz pulse signal, an unbiased PCA needs to be placed in the terahertz optical path first, so that it can be gated by an optical gating pulse (detection pulse), where the detection pulse and the pump The Pu pulse has an adjustable time delay relationship; then a probe pulse is used to hit the photoconductive medium, and electron-hole pairs (free carriers) can be generated in the medium at this time. The Hertz pulse is used as a bias electric field applied to the PCA to drive those carriers to move, thereby forming a photocurrent in the PCA; finally, a collection circuit connected to the PCA is used to collect and process this current. Among them, the photocurrent formed in PCA is proportional to the THz instantaneous electric field. The time delay between the probe pulse and the pump pulse is achieved by an optical delay line.


Here are the steps to troubleshoot:

a)  Check whether the optical fiber transceiver is inserted reversely

Pull out the optical fiber, switch the transceiver end of the optical fiber, insert it again, and check whether the indicator light of the optical port is on.

b) Check whether the fiber model matches

According to the model of the optical module, check whether the wavelength and rate of the optical modules at both ends are the same.

c)   Check the media of the optical multiplexing port

1) Here is the command to check it: show interface + port number

2) If the medium type is wrong, use medium-type fiber to switch to optical port

Ruijie#config t

Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.

Ruijie(config)#int gi 0/2

Ruijie(config-GigabitEthernet0/2)#medium-type fiber



For an aggregated interface, if you want to change the media type, you may need to launch the link aggregation mode first, and then modify the media type.

d) Check rate duplex configuration

It is generally recommended to use the default auto-negotiation rate duplex, but adjustments are required in the following cases:

1)The peer device does not support auto-negotiation, such as optoelectronic transceivers, you need to specify the rate duplex and flow control on the switch on our end

2)The speed of the installed optical module is inconsistent with the interface speed. For example, if a Mini-GBIC Gigabitoptical module is inserted into an SFP interface that supports 10 Gigabit speed, the speed needs to be specified.

3) The peer device is configured with forced rate and duplex, then our end needs to be configured the same

Here are commands need to configure:

Ruijie#showrun int te 1/2

Ruijie(config)#intte 1/2

Ruijie(config-TenGigabitEthernet 1/2)#speed10g  //

Specify the interface rate

Ruijie(config-TenGigabitEthernet 1/2)#duplex full  //

Specifyfull duplex

Ruijie(config-TenGigabitEthernet1/2)#flowcontrol off     // turn off flow control


Ruijie#showrun int te 1/2

e) Check optical transceiver power (check optical attenuation)

Check the transmit/receive power value on the optical module. If the RX Power is less than the minimum receive light intensity of the module, Link UP cannot be performed. Please perform the following troubleshooting:

1) Check the correspondence between optical modules and fiber wavelengths

2) Replacing pigtails

3) Check whether the total length of the optical fiber exceeds the maximum distance supported by the optical module, or use a tester to test whether the optical attenuation of the optical fiber is too large.



Checking the received and received light intensity of an optical module requires the hardware and software support ofthe optical module and switch. If the command prompts Unknown Command, you need to use an external optical power meter to check.

Here is the command to check the transceiver power:

Ruijie#show int te 1/1 transceiver

Here is the example when the received light intensity is too weak:

Ruijie#show int te 3/1 transceiver diagnosis      

Current diagnostic parameters :

Temp(Celsius)   Voltage(V)      Bias(mA)        RX power(dBm)   TX power(dBm)

34(OK)          4.99(OK)        5.88(OK)        -28.24(alarm)  -2.78(OK)

f) Single-port transceiver self-loop test

Use a single-core fiber to short-circuit the transceiver ends of the optical module to check whether it is Link up.

If Link UP is possible, it means that the local switch and optical module are working normally. Please check the switch configuration and optical transceiver power.

If the Linkup fails, the switch port or optical module is damaged. Please replace it one by one.

If the interface light is on, it means that there is no problem with the port and optical module.

AlexKurz Dec 2 · Tags: sfp

1. DDM, DOM, RGD-What functons do they represent?

DDM, DOM and RGD are common in SFP transceiver names, which make users confused. In fact, DDM (Digital Diagnostics Monitoring) is a technology which enables users to monitor real-time parameters in SFP modules like input power, output power and temperature. DOM (digital optical monitoring) is similar to DDM, allowing users to monitor parameters of the SFP transceiver. RGD means the SFP is a “rugged” grade transceiver that is well fit for industrial networking applications such as manufacturing automation, substations and smart transport systems.


2. What’s the difference between singlemode SFP and multimode SFP?

There are three main differences between singlemode SFP (SMF SFP) and multimode SFP (MMF SFP). The first one is the fiber cable used with them. Singlemode fiber has a smaller core than multimode fiber, and it allows unlimited bandwidth and lower loss. While multimode fiber can propagate multiple modes of light. The second one is the transmission distance. Singlemode SFP transceiver is often used in long-run links up to 120km, but multimode SFP module is used in short applications. The last one is the cost. Singlemode SFP is more expensive than multimode SFP due to the use of different light emitting unit.


3. What’s the difference between SFP and SFP+?

SFP and SFP+ have the same size and appearance. The main differenceaa between SFP and SFP+ is that SFP is often used for 100Base or 1000Base applications, while the SFP+ is used in Gigabit Ethernet applications. And the data rate and transmission distance of them are also different. For example, SFP supports speed up to 4Gbps Fibre Channel transceiver, while the speed of SFP+ transceiver is up to 10.3125Gbps.


4. Can we use SFP hardware in SFP+ slots?

In many cases, SFP+ port accept SFP optics, but the speed will be down to 1G instead of 10G. However, SFP+ optics cannot be plugged into SFP port, because SFP+ does not support speed under 1G. In addition, almost all SFP+ ports on switches can support SFPs, but many SFP+ ports of Brocade switch only support SFP+ optics.


5. How to maintain SFP module?

Generally speaking, there are several aspects to maintain SFP transceivers.Optical port protection. Keep the end face clean; avoid prolonged exposure the SFP port in the air; avoid scratching the end face or sleeve, etc.Use the SFP module correctly. Keep the optical transceiver work in the normal level; plug and insert the SFP transceiver gently to reduce accidental damageKeep the using environmental humidity of SFP transceiver is normal.


Small Form Factor Pluggable (SFP) is basically a fiber optic module that fits into an SFP socket or port on an Ethernet switch or media converter. It facilitates seamless conversion of Ethernet signals into optical signals to transfer and receive data.


What Are the Functions of SFP modules?

SFP modules facilitate high-speed communication between switches and network components such as routers and other devices.

It is mainly used with copper or fiber optic cables.

Its small form factor makes it ideal for areas that may not be very accessible.

Compatible with duplex Multimode or Singlemode fiber optic cable as well as simplex cables.

Supports wavelengths up to 1310nm for Multimode and 1550nm for Singlemode.

Newer versions of SFP such as SFP+ have been developed which offer very high speeds up to 10Gbps.


How Many Types of SFP modules are there?

SFPs are mainly classified based on their speed capabilities. Some of the types are 100Base, 1000Base Gigabit, and 10Gig (SFP+). For most Fiber SFP modules, the transmission speed is 1 Gigabit, but the newer versions such as SFP+ have a higher speed of transmission, from 10 to 25 Gigabit.


Commercially speaking, there are certain abbreviations on the modules, such as SX, LX, ZX, EX, and so on. SX indicates multimode short-wavelength of 850nm, while the others indicate single mode wavelengths of varying capacities.

What is the Advantage of SFP Ports on a Gigabit Switch?

Also known as mini Gigabit interface converter (GBIC), they are used in network interface cards (NICs), Ethernet switches, firewalls, and so on to act as an interface between a network device or a devices motherboard and the networking cable. With an SFP module, you can configure several ports on the same panel. Most companies use switches with at least two or more SFP ports making them a part of the network topology such as ring, star, bus, and so on.


This page compares Photodiode Vs Photomultiplier and mentions difference between Photodiode and Photomultiplier tubes.


It consists of a normal p-n junction housed in a small enclosure which a transparent window through which light can fall inside. Figure-1 depicts photodiode from OSRAM and symbol of photodiode. Photodiode is basically a type of photodetector capable of converting light into either current or voltage.


A photo diode is operated in reverse bias in which leakage current increases in proportion to the amount of light falling on the junction. This is result of light energy which breaks the bonds in the crystal lattice of the semiconductor producing electrons and holes. This effect is similar to photo voltaic cell.


• Photodiodes have high quantum efficiency and are compact in size.

• They are insensitive to magnetic field.

• Available as conventional photodiode and avalanche photodiode.

• Conventional photodiode does not have internal amplification.


PMTs (Photomultiplier Tubes) are used for light detection of very weak signals.

• It is photo-emissive device in which absorption of photon results in emission of electron.

• It is one of the class of vacuum tubes also known as vacuum phototube.

• It is visible range photon sensor.

• Earlier PMTs are of larger size having glass vacuum envelopes, now they are available in smaller sizes.

• Now-a-days PMTs are replaced by avalanche photodiodes, but still they are in use in variety of applications such as Raman spectrophotometry, Fluorescent molecular tagging applications and single bubble sonoluminescence.


Following are the major difference between photodiode and photomultiplier tube.

➨Photodiode convert one photon into one electron, while photomultiplier amplify electrons. Photomultiplier tube uses detector which changes photons into electrons so that they can be detected. Later photomultiplier tube uses dynodes to amplify the electrons.

AlexKurz Dec 2 · Tags: photodiode

A photo diode is a semiconductor junction which converts light (photons) into free carriers. Essentially, the light leads to an electrical current when both parts of the diode are electrically connected.


However, an electrical current is typically inconvenient for measurement. For measurement purposes voltages are much more convenient. To convert a current into a voltage one uses a transimpedance amplifier which can also be used to increases the signal level. A photo diode wired to a transimpedance is called a photo detector.


In conclusion, a photo detector is a photo diode connected to a transimpedance amplifier.


There are conflicting definitions of these two ambiguous terms that even most electronics engineers don’t really know the difference. Functionally, they are similar- they detect light. The photodiode would be used with an amplifier to detect low levels of light because they allow a leakage current that varies with the amount of light on them. Photodetectors are simply a resistor that varies in value with the amount of light on it. No amplifier is required. Typically, the photoresistor is slower than the photodiode. You would use the photoresistor, for example, in a lamp to detect when it’s dark. You would use the photodiode when speed is a requirement, for example in a slave trigger for a photo strobe light.


Photoresistors are also about 1/10 the cost of photodiodes.

AlexKurz Dec 2 · Tags: photodetectors

Active ODLs, on the other hand, are electronic devices that perform the conversion of an RF signal to optical and then output the signal again as RF. From a high-level perspective, the device first converts an incoming analog RF signal to an optical signal. The optical signal is then transmitted through a single-mode fiber coil of a specific length with a delay. After passing through the fiber optic coil, the signal is converted back to an RF signal and output by the device.


To complete this process, an active Optical Delay Line contains several components, including a laser, a photodiode, an optical modulator, and of course a single-mode fiber coil. For more complex applications and additional features such as variable delay, other components such as optical switches, optical and RF amplifiers, and dispersion compensators can be integrated into the device. It is important to note that the total delay includes the combined delay of the fiber optic coil and the delay time for the signal to travel through the electronic components at both ends.


In which applications can active optical delay lines be used? As mentioned in the introduction, RFoF communication systems frequently used in defense and military systems (eg, radar, GPS, SATCOM, and long-range antennas) often need to incorporate active ODL devices.


Finally, active Optical Delay Line equipment is often much more expensive than passive Optical Delay Line due to the inclusion of additional hardware to implement the necessary signal conversion and delay processes. However, the choice of whether to opt for active or passive Optical Delay Line should always be based on specific application and project requirements.


As the name implies, passive ODLs do not require a power source and typically consist of coils or spools of optical fiber wound or cut to precise lengths to provide a specific time delay. Depending on the length and latency required, these spools/coils are housed in enclosures that can range from portable modules for very short latency to larger rackmount enclosures for longer latency.


To achieve the desired time delays, ODL suppliers must be able to wind very precise fiber lengths, which requires significant investment in advanced automated fiber winding machines and associated testing equipment and procedures. Because of these features, most passive ODL solutions can not only be customized in terms of delay/length and fiber optic connector type to meet the user's exact requirements.


The expected accuracy of the time delay may vary depending on user and application requirements. For example, a telecommunications system manufacturer or integrator may require less accuracy in replicating field link delays in a laboratory environment, since a slightly larger tolerance is acceptable (eg: to ensure that actual delays are as expected). However, for low-latency financial or HFT network service providers deploying very specific time delays into their networks, more precise delays and tighter tolerances are often required.

AlexKurz Dec 2 · Tags: odl suppliers
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